For windowed functions, SQL Server introduces two new operators in the execution plan; Segment and Sequence Project. If you’ve tried looking them up in the documentation, you’ll know that it’s not exactly perfectly obvious how they work. Here’s my stab at clarifying what they actually do.
The subject of parallel execution of SQL Server queries is at times somewhat shrouded in mystery and uncertainty. Since the concept of parallel execution is such a significant (and indispensable tool) for performance tuning, it’s good to have a fair idea of how it works. In this first post in a series on parallelization, I’m going to try to sort out the apples from the pears, or the serial from the parallel if you will.